[What you need to know to start the day: Get New York Today in your inbox.]
The key to Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo’s surprise decision this month to call off the L-train shutdown is a new repair plan that relies on a less disruptive approach to fixing the tunnel between Manhattan and Brooklyn, allowing work to be done on nights and weekends.
But the Metropolitan Transportation Authority considered a similar idea nearly five years ago and determined that it raised serious safety concerns, including the potential for the spread of cancer-causing dust that could harm commuters and workers, according to documents obtained by The New York Times.
Both plans call for mounting heavy cables to the wall of a nearly century-old tunnel under the East River, rather than burying the cables in the wall.
But engineers warned in 2014 that the technique could harm the wall’s lining, according to the documents obtained by The Times.
“Excessive anchor bolt penetrations for installing critical cables may damage the concrete lining and induce leakages,” according to a report by the transit agency and Parsons Brinckerhoff, an engineering consultant now known as WSP that is leading planning for Mr. Cuomo’s alternate plan.
Instead of closing the subway tunnel for 15 months, the new plan would limit construction work to one tube at a time on nights and weekends over a longer period of time.
But the earlier report raised concerns that the construction work could create silica dust, a hazardous mineral that would be difficult to remove during a short weekend closing. Exposure to silica dust can damage the lungs.
The engineers also said there was a “high risk” of not being able to restore train service on time every Monday morning.
On Tuesday, the authority’s board was briefed on the new repair plan by WSP — a meeting that turned into a lively debate over its merits. Mr. Cuomo, a Democrat who controls the authority, had called for the “emergency meeting.”
A spokesman for the authority, Shams Tarek, defended the new repair plan and said it was “significantly different” from the 2014 approach. The new plan would hang the cables on racks, instead of affixing them directly to the tunnel wall, requiring 60 percent fewer bolts to hang the cables.
“The M.T.A. and WSP would never recommend a project that poses any risk to public safety,” Mr. Tarek said in a statement.
Jerry Jannetti, a senior vice president at WSP, said the firm stood behind its new approach.
“We are confident that the frequency and depth of the bolt penetration will pose no risk to the tunnel lining,” Mr. Jannetti said in a statement.
The new plan also removes a smaller amount of the concrete bench walls that can release silica dust, Mr. Jannetti said.
“Any issues related to silica dust will be managed by the contractor and overseen by an independent consultant, and will be safe for both workers and riders,” he said.
Some board members have criticized Mr. Cuomo’s secrecy in announcing the new approach without their input. The board must eventually approve the new plan, though no vote was taken on Tuesday.
A spokeswoman for the governor, Dani Lever, said in a statement: “The same consultant studied both options and said again today at a public hearing that this is a different design than the first option they studied, and hence they have a different opinion, just like an apple is not an orange.”
At the board meeting, Polly Trottenberg, the city’s transportation commissioner, asked how the agency would handle silica dust and how long the construction work would last. Leaders on the project said efforts to contain the silica dust would depend on how much concrete is removed. The work could last 15 to 20 months, though the schedule is still being determined.
Ms. Trottenberg, who is also a board member, criticized the agency’s decision to announce “shutdown averted” before talking to the board.
“Is the decision made?” she asked. “Do we have any actual role here?”
The authority’s chairman, Fernando Ferrer, dared board members to express support for a full shutdown — an option that has outraged L-train riders.
“Look, if you’re for inconveniencing 275,000 people, say so!” Mr. Ferrer said.
The M.T.A. has become a punching bag over the last two weeks. Mr. Cuomo, complaining of its stodgy bureaucracy, said he wanted to “blow up the M.T.A.” A piece on New York Magazine’s website asked: “Is the Metropolitan Transportation Authority staffed by idiots?”
But the documents show that the agency, which had come under intense criticism for not thinking of the approach sooner, had considered other options and determined that a full shutdown was best.
In February 2015, a report by Jacobs, an engineering consultant, warned that “weekend construction is not acceptable,” listing concerns over silica dust control and reliability. A chart showed the downsides of weekend closures, including higher labor costs and a longer construction period.
A final version of the Jacobs report released the next year changed how “silica dust control” during weekend work was rated from “not desirable” to “satisfactory.”
Former subway leaders have criticized Mr. Cuomo’s plan as being just a temporary fix for the tunnel, which was built in 1924 and damaged by floodwaters during Hurricane Sandy in 2012.
The new plan, developed by a team of engineers from Columbia and Cornell Universities, would hang the cables from the wall, instead of encasing them in a structure known as a bench wall.
Workers would remove damaged parts of the bench wall and secure other parts with a substance known as fiber reinforced polymer that could last 40 years. Rebuilding the bench walls, as the original plan called for, could last more than 80 years.
Carmen Bianco, the former president of New York City Transit, said he recalled attending meetings to discuss different approaches for the repairs, but the idea of hanging the cables was ruled out “very quickly” because of the tunnel’s age. Mr. Bianco did not provide the documents to The Times.
“We all knew the worst thing we could do was a complete shutdown,” Mr. Bianco said. “We knew what that would do to the neighborhoods and to the economy and to people trying to get to work. We couldn’t find another scenario that was really safe and made sense.”
Mr. Bianco, who argued in an Op-Ed in The Times last week that the revised plan had not been properly vetted, said Mr. Cuomo’s plan could still be very disruptive since the L train is popular on nights and weekends. Trains would run every 20 minutes.
“If people continue to use it as normal, then it’s going to be very crowded,” he said.
The shutdown was set to begin on April 27. It is not clear when the work will begin now. Andy Byford, the subway’s leader, supports Mr. Cuomo’s plan, but called for an independent review and said he would not be “steamrolled” if that process takes a while.
Silica dust has emerged as a central concern. Removing parts of the concrete bench wall could create silica, a mineral that can cause an incurable lung disease or lung cancer if inhaled, according to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
The transit agency learned how to contain silica from rebuilding the Montague tunnel in 2014, according to the 2014 report on the L train. It requires “isolation of the work area,” which is difficult during a weekend closing, the report said. One approach of wetting the dust to remove it was not foolproof, the report said.
“Mister and water-spray systems reduce airborne dust by about 50 percent” but do “not eliminate the hazard,” the report said.
The debate over the L train also comes at a critical time for the transit agency. Mr. Byford introduced a plan to save the subway last May, but he needs Mr. Cuomo’s help to pay for it. Mr. Cuomo has urged state lawmakers to pay for it by approving congestion pricing, a proposal to toll cars entering the busiest parts of Manhattan.
Switching to a less ambitious plan in order to avoid having to shut down the L train would be a missed opportunity to fix the tunnel for the long haul, said Mitchell L. Moss, director of the Rudin Center for Transportation Policy and Management at New York University.
“This is like delaying open-heart surgery,” Mr. Moss said. “We don’t know how long the stent is going to last.”B:
www.kj123.com【屋】【子】【里】【顿】【时】【响】【起】【了】【一】【个】【女】【人】【的】【声】【音】，【顾】【瑜】【霓】【仔】【细】【地】【去】【辨】【别】，【怎】【么】【说】【呢】，【顾】【瑜】【霓】【觉】【得】【这】【个】【声】【音】【就】【像】【是】【置】【身】【森】【林】【里】【面】【猛】【然】【间】【听】【到】【的】【毒】【蛇】【捕】【捉】【猎】【物】【的】【声】【音】【一】【样】，【都】【会】【在】【不】【知】【不】【觉】【中】【让】【人】【丢】【掉】【性】【命】。 “【这】【位】【女】【士】，【咱】【两】【见】【过】【吗】？” 【顾】【瑜】【霓】【觉】【得】【这】【个】【人】【和】K【的】【前】【首】【领】【一】【定】【有】【着】【千】【丝】【万】【缕】【的】【联】【系】，【要】【么】【是】【爱】【情】，【要】【么】【是】【亲】【情】【的】
【大】【量】【精】【灵】【族】【的】【高】【手】【不】【顾】【生】【死】【的】【冲】【出】，【企】【图】【将】【顾】【轻】【烟】【保】【护】【住】。 【幽】【冥】【族】【那】【边】，【不】【少】【幽】【冥】【族】【之】【人】【也】【是】【看】【着】【顾】【轻】【烟】【几】【人】【有】【些】【愕】【然】，【生】【命】【森】【林】【里】【面】【的】【人】【逃】【跑】【都】【来】【不】【及】，【怎】【么】【会】【有】【人】【找】【死】【的】【跑】【到】【古】【神】【殿】【来】。 【在】【生】【命】【森】【林】【里】【面】，【或】【许】【还】【有】【机】【会】【跑】【掉】，【但】【在】【古】【神】【殿】，【基】【本】【没】【有】【活】【路】【可】【言】。 “【精】【灵】【族】【似】【乎】【很】【在】【意】【那】【个】【女】【人】，【不】【惜】
【钟】【灵】【雨】【身】【后】【的】【黑】【影】，【身】【上】【散】【发】【出】【不】【可】【一】【世】【的】【威】【势】。 【那】【双】【眼】，【仿】【佛】【世】【间】【一】【切】【难】【入】【法】【眼】。 【古】【帝】【投】【影】【看】【着】【这】【黑】【影】，【惊】【愕】【失】【色】。 【她】【当】【然】【是】【见】【过】【大】【世】【面】【的】【人】，【但】【她】【怎】【么】【也】【想】【不】【通】，【这】【家】【伙】，【怎】【么】【会】【在】【钟】【灵】【雨】【这】【个】【女】【子】【的】【身】【上】。 【钟】【灵】【雨】【身】【后】【的】【影】【子】【身】【上】【以】【强】【大】【的】【灵】【压】，【向】【古】【帝】【投】【影】【碾】【压】【而】【来】。 【只】【要】【能】【够】【将】【古】【帝】【投】www.kj123.com【两】【天】【后】，【阎】【钰】【寒】【用】【实】【际】【行】【动】【回】【答】【了】【她】【的】【疑】【问】。 【就】【在】【她】【带】【着】【权】【澈】【回】【家】【吃】【饭】【的】【那】【晚】，【阎】【钰】【寒】【身】【边】【也】【带】【了】【个】【漂】【亮】【的】【女】【孩】【子】。 【阎】【钰】【笙】【一】【眼】【就】【认】【出】【了】，【那】【就】【是】【之】【前】【她】【在】【哥】【哥】【房】【间】【里】【看】【到】【的】【那】【张】【照】【片】【上】【的】【女】【孩】。 【原】【本】【就】【有】【好】【感】【的】，【结】【果】【就】【是】【两】【人】【一】【见】【如】【故】，【很】【快】【找】【到】【共】【鸣】。 “【子】【衿】，【你】【和】【我】【哥】【是】【怎】【么】【认】【识】【的】【呀】？【以】【前】
【这】【边】【经】【历】【着】【这】【一】【个】【小】【插】【曲】，【台】【上】【的】【竞】【技】【则】【是】【依】【旧】【激】【烈】， 【场】【上】【的】【其】【他】【人】【对】【德】【林】【杰】【进】【行】【着】【围】【杀】，【但】【是】【根】【本】【就】【无】【法】【将】【其】【困】【住】，【虽】【然】【德】【林】【杰】【不】【能】【用】【六】【式】，【但】【是】【德】【林】【杰】【自】【己】【摸】【索】【的】【高】【速】【移】【动】【却】【是】【和】【六】【式】【的】“【剃】”【的】【速】【度】【相】【差】【无】【几】，【因】【此】【这】【些】【人】【不】【仅】【无】【法】【围】【住】【的】【德】【林】【杰】，【反】【而】【是】【被】【德】【林】【杰】【一】【个】【个】【的】【击】【倒】， 【而】【随】【着】【场】【上】【人】【数】【的】【一】
【我】【第】【一】【次】【见】【潇】【潇】，【就】【从】【她】【眼】【睛】【里】【知】【道】，【她】【是】【个】【好】【女】【孩】。 【虽】【然】【京】【师】【许】【多】【世】【家】【公】【子】【对】【她】【略】【显】【嗤】【之】【以】【鼻】，【说】【她】【当】【初】【和】【那】【李】【远】【那】【些】【事】。 【可】【我】【却】【觉】【得】，【是】【李】【远】【没】【有】【福】【气】，【才】【将】【潇】【潇】【这】【么】【好】【的】【女】【孩】【子】【留】【给】【我】。 【我】【在】【后】【院】【抱】【着】【书】【看】，【娘】【说】【我】【放】【着】【好】【好】【书】【房】【不】【去】【待】【在】【屋】【子】【外】【做】【什】【么】，【我】【笑】【笑】【没】【回】【答】。 【因】【为】【我】【想】【从】【墙】【角】【的】【缝】